Elderly Retire Life to Support for Tourism, and Leisure – An Identity Perspective

Introduction

The population of the elderly has continued to rise in the recent past as a result of technological changes that have transformed the health sector. These improvements have increased the life expectancy age in several countries, and as a result, those who are aged 60 years or more constitute 11 percent of the world’s total population. Actually, it is projected that come the year 2050, the figure will reach 20 percent. In some countries for instance Germany, France, Japan, and the United Kingdom, at least one third of the entire population is expected to be aged 60 years or more within a time span of less than 20 years (Dann, 2001, p. 239).

Indeed, the elderly population especially in the advanced countries usually participates in tourism activities due to the fact that they are already retired, thus, they have adequate time available for them to travel. In addition, the size of the elderly population has been expanding over the years and many of them have the desire to travel across the world. The higher purchasing power of the elderly population has also enabled them to participate in tourism activities. Their higher purchasing power can be attributed to the high level of income that they have saved during their working life (You & O’Leary, 1999, p. 23). Many of the elderly population are healthy, educated, have sufficient income and enjoy a longer lifespan. This has motivated them to engage in tourism activities, for instance travelling and other leisure activities (Sellick & Muller, 2004, p. 201; Jang & Wu, 2006, p. 309).

With regard to this, very many studies have pointed out that the main market segment for tourism is the elderly population (Shoemaker, 2000, p. 17; Horneman et al., 2002, p. 26; Bai et al., 2001, p. 152). In the advanced economies, tourism in the fastest growing sector. Tourism creates massive employment opportunities and at the same time, it really contributes to the country’s GDP through revenues from foreign earnings. In many cases the tourism sector is vulnerable to external influences and shocks.

Statement of the problem

There are many tourism destination sites in Southeast Asia; among all the destination sites, Thailand is the darling to many tourists. This is because of so many reasons, including the high level of hospitality by the citizens, the diverse culture of the people, and the various natural resources in the country. The tourism sector has been growing at an exponential rate, except for its decline in 2009 which can be attributed to the global financial crisis that affected many economies in the world. Actually, the international tourism arrivals in Thailand have surpassed the 14.4 million mark which translates to a growth rate of more than 3 percent. Consequently, the revenue gained from international tourism has surpassed the US$ 15.5 million mark (Jang & Wu, 2006, p. 309).

In Thailand, the tourism sector contributes to at least 14.1 percent of the total GDP. By the year 2008, the tourism sector employed at least 3.9 million people, which was about 10.6 percent of the country’s total employment (Jang & Wu, 2006, p. 309). Like any other country, Thailand also relies on the elderly population, who they perceive as a potential market. The tourism products are therefore tailor-made to fit the needs and the expectations of the tourists falling into the age bracket. In the year 2007 alone, there was an increase in the elderly international tourism arrivals by 15.3 percent. Thailand receives many Asian tourists than European tourists. However, the European tourists stay for long when they visit, an average of 15.26 days; this is almost triple the length of time spent by the Asian tourists. This means that Thailand earns a lot of foreign exchange from tourism.

Objectives of the study

The various travel businesses really rely on information relating to the participation of the elderly people in tourism activities. This information is important as it enables them to thrive in the competitive business world (Crompton, 1979, p. 412; Jang & Wu, 2006, p. 310). There are several studies that have been conducted with regard to the participation of the elderly in tourism activities. All this is aimed at providing a clear understanding at the same to the relevant institutions. Recent studies concerning the behaviour of the elderly tourists have narrowed down to the Asian tourists, little emphasis has however been given to European elderly tourists coming to visit Thailand. This study, therefore bridges the research gap by focusing mainly on the participation of the elderly Europeans in tourism activities in Thailand. In addition, the study goes further to explore on the relevance of the tourism elements that are offered in Thailand. The elements include: accommodation services, convenience, attraction sites, social amenities, and public provisions.

Information regarding the requirements and the preferences of the elderly tourists is very relevant as it helps planners to effectively come up with the relevant strategies and mechanisms of designing and innovating products that are appropriate to the tourists. With this in place, marketing will be easy and implementation will also be easy. Satisfaction of the tourists will also be enhanced and when this happens, more tourists will be attracted.

Justification of the Study

The findings of this study are of great value to policy makers and regulatory authorities. It provides the policy makers with a wide exposure with regard to the assessment of travel motivations and market segmentation for the elderly, thus enabling them to adopt the relevant strategies in line with the situation. The findings of this study also add to the body of knowledge of related studies about the assessment of overseas travel motivations and market segmentation for the elderly.

Literature Review

Introduction

This chapter reviews the theories both empirical and theoretical that are closely linked to the overseas travel motivations and market segmentation for the elderly.

Factors enticing the elderly to travel

All the elderly generation is coerced to travel as a result of motivation. Motivation plays a critical role to entice the elderly to engage in tourism activities. Basically, motivation can be attributed to the internal drive that exists within an individual. This internal drive persuades an individual to engage in an activity that derives satisfaction (Moutinho, 2000, p. 13). In other instances, motivation has been taken to mean the drive that exists within a person that compels him/her to do a certain thing so as to meet a psychological need or a biological need (Fridgen, 1996, p. 46). Travel motivation is the kind of motivation that is connected to the reason why people decide to travel (Hsu & Huang, 2008, p. 52). The motivation that is connected to the tourists’ travel encompasses a wide spectrum of the tourists’ behaviours and their previous travel experiences.

Examples of the motivations that lead people to travel include: the desire to relax, the urge to gain excitement, the need to interact with friends socially, the spirit of adventure, the urge to interact with families, the drive to improve personal status, and the urge to get away from the daily routines or stress. Pearce (1982) connected tourists’ motivation and behaviour to the Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs; he was of the opinion that “the main reason that made the tourists to be attracted to the destined place of visit was their desire to attain self-actualization, the feeling of love or belongings, and also to attain the physiological needs” (p. 42).

Moreover, Fleischer and Pizam (2002) did a review of the past studies regarding travel motion and made an inference that “the older elders were generally motivated to travel by the desire to relax, interact, learn, and to gain excitement” (p. 108). In the same manner, Horneman et al. (2002) in his study revealed that “the motivation for the elderly was moving towards the desire to rest or relax, the desire for physical exercise or fitness, and the desire for education” (p. 34).

The most recent study done by Huang and Tsai (2003) did a review of the previous studies concerning travel motivation and found out that “the motivation to travel can be categorized into various groups, for instance, rest and relaxation, education, adventure, socializing, and escape from daily patterns of life” (p. 565). In the same way, Jang and Wu (2006) concluded that “the significant push and pull motivations of the tourists were: the desire to seek knowledge, and the urge to be safe” (p. 308).

Inspirations of the elderly tourists

An exploration of the past studies concerning travel motivation factors mainly focused on senior or elderly travels by checking on their profiles, tastes and needs. Both the two groups were motivated to travel by the desire to fulfil their pleasure, the desire to rest or relax, and the desire to meet families or friends; however, the group which was above 50 years of age had a higher probability of touring historical sites (Anderson & Langmeyer, 1982, p. 22). In addition, a study conducted by Javalgi et al. (1992) confirmed that “younger tourists are more educated as compared to the elderly tourists, thus, they always carry out an information search before they proceed with their visit” (p. 16). In addition, the study also found out that “the elderly tourists had adopted a culture of purchasing trip packages that covered the costs of both transportation and accommodation” (p. 17).

Zimmer et al. (1995) conducted a study that mainly dwelt on the attributes of the elderly traveller; the study found out that “the most crucial discriminating variables that existed between those who travel and those who do not travel were: mobility problems, age, and level of education” (p. 8). A study conducted by Koss (1994) found out that “the elderly tourists preferred tourism packages that offered them excitements and added value to their lives” (p. 37). In a related study, Bai et al. (2001) conducted a study that focused on elderly tourists from Britain, Germany and Japan. They found out that “the elderly tourists preferred to have packaged tours; this was evident by the significant number of the tourists in travel parties” (p. 152). When the elderly tourists travel, they always choose credible tour operators who have a good reputation. They also make sure that their health will not be at any risk, and that their trip will give them the desired satisfaction (Hsu, 2001, p. 64; Shoemaker, 2000, p. 18; Romsa and Blenman, 1989, p. 182). Consequently, Lindqvist and Bjork (2000) found out that: “before the elderly tourists make a decision to travel, they always check on whether their safety is safeguarded; the desire for safety increases as the tourists grow older” (p. 153).

Travel behaviour of the elderly tourists

Several studies have been carried out to check on the patterns of behaviour of the elderly tourists. In his study, Shoemaker (1989) concentrated on elderly tourists from Pennsylvania by exploring their travel behaviour and their motivations to travel. He further “segmented the market for the elderly tourists into three groups, for instance, tourists travelling as a family, tourists who rested actively, and the older set of tourists” (p. 18).

Another study conducted by Huang and Tsai (2003) on the elderly tourists from Taiwan revealed that “the elderly tourists were reluctant to sign up for an all-inclusive tour package” (p. 565). Instead, the elderly tourists preferred to have elegant tours which had a high quality in terms of provision of services. Littrell (2004) conducted a study that sought to explore on the tourism activities of the elderly tourists and their behaviour when it comes to shopping. The study found out that “the profiles of the tourists were diverse with regard to their probability to shop at retail outlets, their choice of shopping malls, and their sources of information concerning the available shopping activities” (p. 351).

Motivation is regarded as a shape of the state of needs that influences a person to engage in a certain action or activity that has a higher probability of granting him/her a certain level of desired satisfaction (Moutinho, 2000, p. 13). Motivation is a procedure concerning preferences made by individuals or subordinate organisms among substitute forms of deliberate activity (Britton, et al., 1999, p. 27). Barcelo (2000) suggested that “the present and immediate influence on the vigour, direction and persistence of action can be termed as motivation” (p. 24). Kinni (1994) found out that “business managers are striving to establish and maintain an atmosphere that is more favourable for the satisfaction of tourists, who are striving together in groups towards attainment of pre-determined goals” (p. 14). In the same way, Robson (2002) insinuated that “motivation can be offered to workers as per the following methodologies: the customary or traditional approach; implicit bargaining; human relations approach; internalized motivation; and competition” (p. 62).

Travel motivation can be explained as the magnitude of the commitment, vigour, and originality in the part of the tour. For many tour managers, amidst of ever gradually increasing more aggressive business atmosphere of the recent years, finding out, means to motivate the clients. In reality, a variety of varied hypotheses and means of tourist motivation have appeared, extending from increased involvement to monetary incentives and employee empowerment. For small tourist enterprises, motivation can occasionally be predominantly challenging where the promoters have frequently worked for many years for establishing a company that he may be reluctant to delegate significant authorities to others. But the business owners should be aware of such drawbacks. Some of the issues connected to unmotivated travellers include deteriorating morale, less contentment, and widespread dissuasion. If permitted to prolong, these issues can lessen earnings, competitiveness, and productivity especially for small business (Crouch & Jordan, 2004, p. 120).

The motivation theories can be linked to the psychological factors like: wants, desires and goals, as the theories provide a description of the psychological factors (Fodness, 1994, p. 563). The psychological factors of needs, desires or goals induce an urgent urge in the person’s mind which leads him/her to purchase goods or services; thus, motivation directly influences the feelings of the individuals. Consumers who have divergent motives may assess a tourist destination in the same manner especially if they are of the opinion that the destination provides them with the maximum utility.

The important motivational elements that have been pointed out by different scholars in their studies include: the urge to get away from the daily programs or work; and the urge to seek for alternative enjoyable experiences. The push-pull model was generated by Crompton (1979). The model postulates that “tourism is driven by two main forces; the first force, known as a push, pushes the tourist out of his/her home driven by the desire to travel to an unspecified destination” (p. 410). In this context, the motivation of the push force depends on the satisfaction anticipated by the consumer, the urge for adventure, prestige, knowledge, and the desire to make new friendships. The second force, known as pull, provides the consumer with the direction regarding the choice of the destination.

The motives of the pulling force influence the consumer’s choice of the place to visit; the forces are connected to the features of the destination and the infrastructures that define tourism. The features of the destination enable the consumer to make judgments as to whether their desires will be fully satisfied. When the consumer has already pointed out the need, he/she proceeds to identify the destination that grants him/her the maximum satisfaction.

Every tourist is driven by his/her personal motivational factors to travel; these motivational factors are both internal external and they define the tourists’ insights regarding the destination. The internal motivational factors stem from the push motives while the external motivational factors stem from the pull motives. Perception is a dynamic process due to the fact that the consumers have the ability to select, to organize and to spell out the various stimuli into a useful and clear manner. The perception of the consumer, therefore, varies from the real characteristics of a product to the manner in which the consumer grasps and analyses information (Dann, 1981, p. 190; Pearce, 1982, p. 153). Perception can occur selectively if the consumer decides to be selective in his/her exposure, attention, perceptual blockage and perceptual defence. It is a common practice of the consumers to select only things they need and block out the things that they regard as unnecessary or unfavourable to them.

There are two concepts of perception that stem from the tourists’ learning process. One of the concepts is the cognitive perception, while the other one is the emotional perception. When the elderly tourist assesses the features of the desired destination, cognitive perception is achieved; on the other hand, emotional perception relies on the thoughts of the consumer with regard to the desired destination (Gnoth, 1997, p. 292). Both the two perceptions (cognitive and emotional) are essential for formulating models of perception of the tourists’ travel products.

Every tourist has a great desire to satisfy his/her motivation when they decide to travel. Each tourist has a different interpretation of the concept of satisfaction, thus, its definition is divergent among the various consumers. Many scholars in their research articles have linked the definition of satisfaction to the distinction between expectation and experience (Woodside, Frey & Daly, 1989, p. 12). Bultena and Klessig (1969) gave a definition of satisfactory experience as “a part of the level of the correspondence between the consumers’ desires and the experiences that they undergo” (p. 349). Satisfaction does not entirely stem from the pleasures that the tourists derive from the travelling experience, but rather it is the analysis that checks out whether the experience satisfied the consumer as it was expected to (Hunt, 1977, p. 49). Various researches have revealed that satisfaction and the brand’s attitude mean one and the same thing (LaTour & Peat, 1979, p. 433).

Research Methodology

Introduction

Methodology is the process of instructing the ways to do the research. It is, therefore, convenient for conducting the research and for analysing the research questions (Easterby, Thorp & Lowe, 2008, p. 67; Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2009, p. 87). The process of methodology insists that much care should be given to the kinds and nature of procedures to be adhered to in accomplishing a given set of procedures or an objective.

Research philosophy

For this part, choosing a philosophy of research design is the choice between the positivist and the social constructionist (Easterby, Thorp & Lowe, 2008, p. 67). The positivist view shows that social worlds exist externally, and its properties are supposed to be measured objectively, rather than being inferred subjectively through feelings, intuition, or reflection. The basic beliefs for positivist view are that the observer is independent, and science is free of value. The researchers should always concentrate on facts, look for causality and basic laws, reduce the phenomenon to the simplest elements, and form hypotheses and test them.

Preferred methods for positivism consist of making concepts operational and taking large samples. The view of the social constructionists is that reality is a one-sided phenomenon and can be constructed socially in order to gain a new significance to the people. The researchers should concentrate on meaning, look for understanding of what really happened and develop ideas with regard to the data. Preferred methods for the social constructionists include using different approaches to establish different views of phenomenon and small samples evaluated in depth or over time (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2009, p. 87). In the case of analysing the participation of the elderly in tourism, the philosophy of the social constructionists was used for carrying out the research. Because it tends to produce qualitative data, and the data are subjective since the gathering process would also be subjective due to the involvement of the researcher.

Research methodology

The participation of the elderly in tourism has multifaceted subjects. Any researcher can centre on distinct areas, for instance, safety of the tourists, quality of attraction sites or the social amenities and facilities present. This paper mainly focuses on the motivational factors that inspire the elderly to participate in tourism activities.

This research will mainly use the qualitative methodological approach as it describes the precise behaviours of companies. Qualitative methodological approach enabled the researcher to point out clearly the values that drive the strategies of the research (Easterby, Thorp & Lowe, 2008, p. 67; Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2009, p. 87). The qualitative methodological approach is preferred over quantitative methodological approach as the latter does not capture all the variables, thus, producing unreliable results. Quantitative analysis and quantitative analysis serve as the two central methodologies of a research.

Case study

Case study is an approach of methodology that is applied when a comprehensive research or investigation is required. Case study is widely applied in sociological studies, but of late it is commonly applied in research institutions (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2009, p. 89). Case study approach has procedures to be followed; hence, the researcher is required to stick to the guiding rules and principles so as to produce the best results. Through a case study approach, the researcher has access to a wide range of data sources; as a result of this, case study results are always very comprehensive and in-depth (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2009, p. 242).

Data Analysis Methods

The main objective of the study was to explore on the participation of the elderly in tourism. The study utilized structural econometric models to assess the models that comprise the relevant variables that describe the data (Yoon & Uysal, 2005, p. 52). The structural econometric models also allow the researcher to estimate the connections that exist among the variables. Data from the survey were entered into the Excel spreadsheet program and was analysed using SPSS and ANOVA analysis.

The statistical tools that were put to use during the analysis of the descriptive data were; measures of central tendency, standard deviation and frequency. On the other hand, the statistical tools that were used to analyse the inferential statistics of the data were: F-test, T-test and level of significance.

Limitation of data collection methods

There have been a lot of concerns on additional budgetary expenses for collection of the data, regardless of whether the gathered data is really genuine or not and whether there may be an explicit conclusion when interpreting and analysing the data. In addition, some tourists were reluctant to offer some information they deemed confidential and unsafe in the hands of their competitors. This posed a great challenge to the research as the researcher had to take a longer time to find other tourists who were willing to give out adequate information.

Validity and reliability

The validity of the data represents the data integrity and it connotes that the data is accurate and much consistent. Validity has been explained as a descriptive evaluation of the association between actions and interpretations and empirical evidence deduced from the data. More precaution was taken especially when a comparison was made between the tourists’ commitment and attitude. The tourists’ motivation may differ from business to business and may not be identical in an industry. Reliability of the data is the outcome of a series of actions which commences with the proper explanation of the issues to be resolved. This may push on to a clear recognition of the yardsticks concerned. It contains the target samples to be chosen, the proper sampling strategy and the sampling methods to be employed.

Findings, Data Analysis and Interpretation

Introduction

This section covers the analysis of the data, presentation and interpretation. The results were analysed using SPPS, regression and correlation analysis.

Descriptive statistics

Demographic characteristics of the respondents

Appendix 1 shows the summary of the demographic characteristics of the respondents who successfully completed the questionnaires. The results summarized in the table reveal that out of the 430 respondents who successfully filled out the questionnaires, 65.12% were male and 34.88% were female. Almost half of the respondents (46.05%) were in the age group between 55 and 59 years; 28.14% of the respondents were in the age group between 60 and 64 years; in addition, 25.81% were aged above 65 years. 143 respondents (33.26%) had a bachelor’s degree; 26.28% (n = 113) had a high school level of education.

Moreover, 291 respondents (67.67%) were married, while only 38 respondents (8.84%) were divorced. 173 respondents (40.23%) had an excellent health status; only 8 respondents (1.86%) had a poor health status. The study also found out that 40.23% (n = 173) of the respondents worked on a full-time basis; 14.89% (n = 64) of the respondents worked on a part-time basis; while only 3.72% (n = 16) of the respondents were unemployed. 47.91% of the respondents perceived their economic status as enough. Consequently, out of the 430 respondents who successfully completed the questionnaires, 27.67% were British tourists, 17.21% had a Dutch origin, 13.72% came from Germany and the rest (41.40%) came from other European countries.

Summary with regard to enthusiasm to travel

Appendix 2 shows the summary of the factors inspiring the tourists to travel with regard to the respondents who successfully completed the questionnaires. The table above gives the summary of travel motivations of the respondents who had completed their questionnaires successfully. The study found out that the top three travel motivation factors for the elderly tourists were: rest and recreation; visit to new places; and learning and experiencing new things. This is indicated by the values of their means as 4.13, 3.97, and 3.96 respectively. In addition, the study found out that the bottom three travel motivation factors that least motivated the elderly tourists were: enlighten (mean = 3.48); exercise physically (mean = 3.10); and visit family and friends (mean = 2.98).

With regard to the analysis of the travel behaviour of the elderly tourists, the study found out that 41.40% of the respondents had visited Thailand only once; 31.86% of the respondents had toured Thailand at least four times. Moreover, more than 50% of all the interviewees (58.37%) were contemplating to remain in Thailand for half a month. The main motivating factor that influenced the elderly tourists to visit Thailand was the fact that the tourists regarded the nationals of Thailand as friendly (72.79%). Of all the activities that the tourists desired to engage in, leisure and sightseeing was the leading activity as it was preferred by 72.56% of the respondents.

Summary of the significance of the tourists’ needs

Appendix 3 shows the summary of the significance of the tourists’ needs of the respondents who successfully completed the questionnaires. 430 elderly tourists gave out their ratings with regard to the relevance or importance of the 17 characteristics of travel requirements listed in Appendix 3. The results indicate that the most important travel requirement that was considered by the elderly tourists was the safety of the destination (mean = 4.19). Location of accommodation and natural attraction followed in that order by means of 4.02 and 4.01 respectively. Consequently, the results further indicate that the least important travel requirements that were considered by the elderly tourists were: hotel accessibility and disability features (mean = 3.41); special events and festivals (mean = 3.40); and leisure activities (mean = 3.15).

430 elderly tourists gave out their ratings with regard to their satisfaction of the travel requirements listed in Appendix 4. The results indicate that the most satisfying travel requirements that was considered by the elderly tourists was the safety of the destination (mean = 4.10). Location of accommodation and natural attraction followed in that order by means of 4.09 and 4.05 respectively. Consequently, the results further indicate that the least important travel requirements that were considered by the elderly tourists were: hotel accessibility and disability features (mean = 3.69); special events and festivals (mean = 3.68); and leisure activities (mean = 3.52).

Conclusion and Recommendations

Introduction

This chapter presents the summary of the findings and discussion of the results in accordance to the objectives of this study. Finally, the chapter contains the conclusions and recommendations.

Conclusion

The main aim of this study was to assess the participation of the elderly in tourism activities. The study focused on the tourism sector of Thailand. The study explored various factors that motivated the elderly tourists to travel, in line with main objective. The study explored elaborate on the various forms of economic impact analysis with regard to inbound tourism. The study relied on primary data using structured questions to explain the main objective. The study found out that the top three travel motivation factors for the elderly tourists were: rest and relaxation; visit to new places; and learning and experiencing new things. Consequently, the results further indicate that the least important travel requirements that were considered by the elderly tourists were: hotel accessibility and disability features.

Indeed, the elderly population especially in the advanced countries usually participates in tourism activities due to the fact that they are already retired, thus, they have adequate time available for them to travel. In addition, the size of the elderly population has been expanding over the years and many of them have the desire to travel across the world. The higher purchasing power of the elderly population has also enabled them to participate in tourism activities. Their higher purchasing power can be attributed to the high level of income that they have saved during their working life. Many of the elderly population are healthy, educated, have sufficient income and enjoy a longer lifespan. This has motivated them to engage in tourism activities, for instance travelling and other leisure.

This study, therefore bridges the research gap by focusing mainly on the participation of the elderly Europeans in tourism activities in Thailand. In addition, the study goes further to explore on the relevance of the tourism elements that are offered in Thailand. Information regarding the requirements and the preferences of the elderly tourists is very relevant as it helps planners to effectively come up with the relevant strategies and mechanisms of designing and innovating products that are appropriate to the tourists.

The study found out that the top three travel motivation factors for the elderly tourists were: rest and relaxation; visit to new places; and learning and experiencing new things. This is indicated by the values of their means as 4.13, 3.97, and 3.96 respectively. In addition, the study found out that the bottom three travel motivation factors that least motivated the elderly tourists were: seeking intellectual enrichment (mean = 3.48); exercise physically (mean = 3.10); and visit family and friends (mean = 2.98). The results further indicate that the most satisfying travel requirements that was considered by the elderly tourists was the safety of the destination (mean = 4.10). Location of accommodation and natural attraction followed in that order by means of 4.09 and 4.05 respectively. Consequently, the results further indicate that the least important travel requirements that were considered by the elderly tourists were: hotel accessibility and disability features (mean = 3.69); special events and festivals (mean = 3.68); and leisure activities (mean = 3.52).

Recommendations

The findings of this study are of great value to policy makers and regulatory authorities. It provides the policy makers with a wide exposure with regard to the assessment of travel motivations and market segmentation for the elderly, thus enabling them to adopt the relevant strategies in line with the situation. The findings of this study also add to the body of knowledge of related studies about the assessment of overseas travel motivations and market segmentation for the elderly.

The findings of this study are very relevant to the elderly tourists, tourist planners and tourist marketers. One of the relevant policies to be implemented is to carry out a promotional campaign to popularize the country’s tourism sector in order to capture the European market by reaching out the elderly tourists. In addition, Thailand government should beef up the security measures for the visiting elderly tourists.

It is also adequate for the country to improve and protect the physical appearance of tourist destination sites to enable her to be in a competitive position as compared to the other countries. Moreover, the ease of accessibility to the tourist destination sites should be improved so as to give an easy time for the elderly tourists to move around. Accommodation facilities and other social amenities should be upgraded so that they can be up to standard and fit the specifications and the requirements of the elderly tourists.

References

Anderson, B. & Langmeyer, L. (1982). The under-50 and over-50 traveler: A profile of similarities and differences. Journal of Travel Research, 20(4), 20-24.

Bai, B.X., Jang, S., Cai, L.A. & O’Leary, J.T. (2001). Determinants of travel mode choice of senior travelers to the United States. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 8(3/4), 147-168.

Barcelo, D. (2000). Sample Handling and Trace Analysis of Pollutants: Techniques and Applications. New York: Elsevier.

Britton, P. B., Samantha J. C. & Terry, W. (1999). Rewards of Work. Ivey Business Journal, 15(2), 20-27.

Bultena, C. & Klessig, L. (1969). Satisfaction in camping: A conceptualization and guide tosocial research. Journal of Leisure Research, 348-364.

Crompton, J. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacations. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4),408-424.

Crouch, G. & Jordan, L. (2004). The determinants of convention site selection: A logistic choice model from experimental data. Journal of Travel Research, 43(2), 118-130.

Dann, G. (1981). Tourist motivation – an appraisal. Annals of Tourism Research, 8(2), 187-219.

Dann, G.M.S. (2001). Senior Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(1), 238-240.

Easterby, M., Thorp, R. & Lowe, A. (2008). Management Research (3rd ed.). New York: Sage.

Fleischer, A. & Pizam, A. (2002). Tourism constraints among Israeli seniors. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(1), 106-123.

Fodness, D. (1994). Measuring tourist motivation. Annals of Tourism Research, 21(3), 555-581.

Fridgen, J.D. (1996). Dimensions of Tourism. MI: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Gnoth, J. (1997). Tourism motivation and expectation formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(2), 283-304.

Horneman, L., Carter, R., Wei, S. & Ruys, A. (2002). Profiling the senior traveler: an Australian perspective. Journal of Travel Research, 41(1), 23-38.

Hsu, C.H.C. & Huang, S. (2008). Travel motivation: a critical review of the concept’s development. In A.G. Woodside & D. Martin (Eds.), Tourism Management: Analysis, Behavior and Strategy (pp. 50-65). Cambridge: CAB International.

Hsu, C.H.C. (2001). Importance and dimensionality of senior motor coach traveler choice attributes. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 8(3/4), 51-70.

Huang, L. & Tsai, H.T. (2003). The study of senior traveler behavior in Taiwan. Tourism Management, 24(1), 561-574.

Hunt, H. (1977). CS/D – overview and future directions. In H. Hunt (Ed.), Conceptualization and measurement of consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction (pp. 47-61). Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute.

Jang, S.C. & Wu, C.M.E. (2006). Senior travel motivation and the influential factors: an examination of Taiwanese seniors. Tourism Management, 27(1), 306-316.

Javalgi, R.G., Thomas, E.G. & Rao, S.R. (1992). Consumer behavior in the US, pleasure travel marketplace: an analysis of senior and non-senior travelers. Journal of Travel Research, 31(2), 14-20.

Kinni, T. B. (1994). The Empowered Workforce. Industry Week, 10(2), 9-14.

Koss, L. (1994). Hotel developing special packages to attract senior travelers. Hotel and Motel Management, 209(3), 30-37.

LaTour, S. & Peat, N. (1979). Conceptual and methodological issues in consumer satisfaction research. Advances in Consumer Research, 6(1), 431-437.

Lindqvist, L.J. & Bjork, P. (2000). Perceived safety as an important quality among senior tourists. Tourism Economics, 6(2), 151-158.

Littrell, M.A. (2004). Senior travelers: tourism activities and shopping behaviors. Journal of Vacation and Marketing, 10(4), 348-362.

Moutinho, L. (2000). Strategic Management in Tourism. New York: CABI Publishing.

Pearce, P. (1982). The Social Psychology of Tourist Behavior. Oxford: Pergamon.

Robson, C. (2002). Real World Research (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.

Romsa, G. & Blenman, N. (1989). Vacation patterns for the elderly German. Annals of Tourism Research, 16(1), 178-188.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, R. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students (5th ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.

Sellick, M.C. & Muller, T.E. (2004). Tourism for the young-old. In T.V. Singh (Ed.), New Horizons in Tourism: Strange Experiences and Stranger Practices (pp. 163-180). Cambridge: CABI Publishing.

Shoemaker, S. (1989). Segmentation of the senior pleasure travel market. Journal of travel research, 27(3), 14-22.

Shoemaker, S. (2000). Segmentation of the market: 10 years later. Journal of Travel Research, 39(1), 11-26.

Woodside, A., Frey, L. & Daly, R. (1989). Linking service quality, customer satisfaction and behavioural intention. Journal of Health Care Marketing, 9(1), 5-17.

Yoon, Y. & Uysal, M. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model. Tourism Management, 26(1), 45-56.

You, X. & O’Leary, J.T. (1999). Destination behavior of older UK travelers. Tourism Recreation Research, 24(1), 23-24.

Zimmer, Z., Brayley, R., Searle, E. & Mark, S. (1995). Whether to go and where to go: identification of important influences on senior and decisions to travel. Journal of Travel Research, 33(3), 3-10.

Appendices

Appendix 1 Demographic characteristics of the respondents

Demographic Characteristics No. of respondents Percentage
Sex
Male 280 65.12
Female 150 34.88
Oldness
55-59 198 46.05
60-64 121 28.14
65 and above 111 25.81
Education
Basic 38 8.83
High school 113 26.28
Technical/Vocational 73 16.98
College/University degree 143 33.26
Graduate degree 63 14.65
Matrimonial status
Single 77 17.91
Married 291 67.67
Widowed 24 5.58
Divorced 38 8.84
Health status
Excellent 173 40.23
Good 221 51.40
Fair 28 6.51
Poor 8 1.86
Employment
Work full-time 173 40.23
Work part-time 64 14.89
Retired more than one year 134 31.16
Retired 1 year or less 43 10
Unemployed 16 3.72
Economic status
Very abundant 43 10
Abundant 168 39.07
Enough 206 47.91
A little difficult 13 3.02
Income source
Pension 142 33.02
Work/own savings 270 62.79
Children’s support 4 0.93
Relatives or friend’s support 8 1.86
Social benefits 6 1.4
Hobbies and interests
Reading 273 63.49
Watching TV 181 42.09
Planting 96 22.33
Listening to music 166 38.60
Travel 325 75.58
Sporting 178 41.40
Watching movie 142 33.02

Appendix 2 Enthusiasm to travel by the respondents

Travel motivations Mean Standard deviation
Rest and recreation 4.13 1.02
Visit to new places 3.97 1.07
Learn and experience new things 3.96 0.99
Get away from pressure 3.80 1.19
Escape from day to day activities 3.69 1.18
Meet people and mingle 3.64 1.02
Health 3.60 1.00
Adventure 3.59 1.05
Enlighten 3.48 1.09
Exercise physically 3.10 1.09
Visit family and friends 2.98 1.44

Appendix 3 The significance of the tourists’ needs

Attributes Mean Standard deviation
Safety of the destination 4.19 0.99
Location of accommodation 4.02 1.06
Natural attractions 4.01 0.94
Price of inclusive packages/hotels 3.99 0.98
Variety of suitability of food and beverage 3.97 0.91
Easy accessibility of destination 3.94 0.95
Historical attractions 3.84 0.96
Cultural attractions 3.82 0.95
Local transportation 3.80 0.93
Convenient immigration and customs procedure 3.73 1.05
Availability of medical facilities 3.73 1.04
Infrastructure 3.71 0.98
Service quality of travel agents 3.70 1.13
Service quality of tour leaders and tour guide 3.64 1.13
Hotel accessibility and disability features 3.41 1.18
Special events and festivals 3.40 0.99
Leisure activities 3.15 1.13

Appendix 4 The satisfaction of tourism attributes of travel requirements (N = 430)

Attributes Mean Standard deviation
Safety of the destination 4.10 0.95
Location of accommodation 4.09 0.86
Natural attractions 4.05 0.81
Price of inclusive packages/hotels 4.03 0.94
Variety of suitability of food and beverage 4.01 0.86
Easy accessibility of destination 3.98 0.88
Historical attractions 3.98 0.89
Cultural attractions 3.96 0.88
Local transportation 3.90 0.93
Convenient immigration and customs procedure 3.82 0.97
Availability of medical facilities 3.81 0.95
Infrastructure 3.81 0.91
Service quality of travel agents 3.79 1.03
Service quality of tour leaders and tour guide 3.77 1.05
Hotel accessibility and disability features 3.69 0.97
Special events and festivals 3.68 0.94
Leisure activities 3.52 0.94
Removal Request
A real student has written this essay about Elderly Retire Life to Support for Tourism, and Leisure – An Identity Perspective and owns intellectual rights to it. If you plan to use this work for research purposes, make sure to include an according citation.
Request to Remove Content

If you are the content owner and don’t want it to be available on our website anymore, feel free to send us a removal request. We’ll fulfill it after reviewing.

Send the Request
Learn the price of your paper