Health Promotion in Minority Populations: Hispanic/Latino


The Hispanic/Latino population is the second largest ethnic minority group in the USA. This cohort experiences quite significant health disparities, although Hispanic Americans’ health status is quite high (Boen & Hummer, 2019). The purpose of this paper is to identify the health status of this population and describe some prevention and health promotion strategies that have been implemented and can be introduced to improve Hispanics’ health. The paper includes the following sections: Description (facts about the population), health disparities and nutritional challenges, barriers to fitness, health promotion activities, three levels of health promotion prevention, culturally competent health promotion, and conclusion.


The Hispanic (non-white) population can be characterized by certain complexities, although these people’s health status is relatively high among other minorities. For instance, Latino Americans live longer lives compared to the white population, but the former has much more health issues, which is referred to as the Hispanic Health Paradox (Boen & Hummer, 2019). For instance, the rate of obese males over 20 years old is 44.8%, and the proportion of females with obesity of the same age is even higher, 46.8% (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2022). The top cause of death among Latino Americans is cardiovascular disorders (CDC, 2022). Howell et al. (2017) found that maternal mortality is three times higher in Hispanic females than in white women. One of the primary causes of these disparities is the low quality of available healthcare services (Howell et al., 2017). Some social and cultural factors also contribute to the health disparity the target population experience.

Health Disparities and Nutritional Challenges

Due to certain socioeconomic peculiarities, Hispanics face health disparities associated with the lack of access to quality health care. A high unemployment rate and the lack of health insurance are the leading causes of health issues in this population (Boen & Hummer, 2019; Howell et al., 2017). Nutritional challenges are also partially associated with socioeconomic aspects. Latino Americans cannot afford to maintain healthy dietary habits as they cannot buy the necessary products in the appropriate quantities (Das et al., 2016). Diets rich in fruit and vegetables remain unavailable to many families, although they understand the benefits of healthy diets. As a result, the rate of obese people in this group is rather high, although certain cultural factors also affect Hispanics’ dietary patterns.

Barriers to Health

As mentioned above, unemployment is one of the primary factors leading to health disparities and the lower health status of Latino people in the USA. Education is another area of concern, as people with a low level of education tend to have unhealthy habits (Fernandez, 2021). , Hispanic Americans have limited access to high-quality education due to financial issues. Hence, the majority of Latino people do not follow healthy lifestyle recommendations. In addition, cultural aspects influence the way Latino people eat (Fernandez, 2021). Traditional foods are characterized by a high level of saturated fat and sugar, which leads to the high prevalence of obesity among Latino Americans.

Health Promotion Activities

Some health promotion activities are available to diverse groups of people, including Hispanics. Some of the most widespread activities are school- and community-based incentives promoting healthy eating and healthy lifestyles (Fernandez, 2021). Children and their parents participate in these programs, learning to change their lifestyles, which tends to lead to quite lasting effects and improvements. The creation of specific public spaces is also aimed at improving the situation in public health, although some minority groups do not use this resource to the fullest (Das et al., 2016). However, this effort is still insufficient and can be enhanced in many ways.

Three Levels of Health Promotion Prevention

A training-based approach is the most effective way to address the problem among the target population. This framework is used on the three levels of health promotion prevention, but it should be intensified by incorporating the social component. At the primary care level, nursing professionals can play a crucial role in training and educating patients to facilitate their self-care skills (Fernandez, 2021). Hispanic people addressing their primary-care professional should obtain the training corresponding with their current health status and some potential health risks. On the secondary level, similar strategies can be employed, but they should incorporate social aspects. For instance, these programs must include all family members (parents’ (or primary caregivers’) involvement is mandatory). Finally, tertiary care incentives should be community-based and include healthcare and educational professionals.

All these strategies should include a wide range of activities, including the provision of print materials and links, meetings and discussions, conferences and fairies, sports festivals, and diverse events. The topics for panels should be healthy dietary patterns, healthy lifestyles, and resources available to different groups of people to maintain healthy lifestyles. The focus should be on knowledge and skills, and people, especially children, should be aware of proper health-related practices and develop the associated self-care skills. It is also critical to make sure that these efforts are regular and interconnected.

Culturally Competent Health Promotion

As far as cultural beliefs and practices to be considered when developing health promotion activities, these include church visits and the Catholic religion. Hispanic people are somewhat religious, and the church plays an essential role in their lives. Therefore, this element should be incorporated into prevention measures. Church leaders should be involved in various activities and encouraged to promote healthy lifestyles concerning the actions that take place in the community. It can be effective to utilize the transcultural nursing theory to implement health promotion strategies. This theory implies an understanding of different cultures, so people of diverse backgrounds can collaborate effectively, which is critical in multicultural communities (Okeya, 2021). The focus will be on some principles that are valued similarly in different cultures. It can also be important to help people develop healthy practices and abandon some of the unhealthiest habits related to their cultural backgrounds.


In conclusion, it is necessary to note that Hispanic Americans have a relatively high health status compared to other ethnic minorities, but this cohort experiences numerous health disparities. One of the significant health concerns of this population includes cardiovascular disorders and obesity. The social determinants of health issues the target population faces include low socioeconomic status, a high rate of unemployment, a low level of education, and cultural aspects. To improve the situation, it is necessary to use the educational approach facilitated by the utilization of transcultural theory based on the principles of understanding and collaboration. Healthcare professionals, educators, church leaders, and communities should collaborate to develop different health promotion strategies. Various programs and initiatives designed for Latino Americans have proven effective, so an increased number of incentives should be in place.


Boen, C. E., & Hummer, R. A. (2019). Longer—but harder—lives?: The Hispanic health paradox and the social determinants of racial, ethnic, and immigrant–native health disparities from midlife through late life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 60(4), 434-452. Web.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Health of Hispanic or Latino population. Web.

Das, K. V., Fan, Y., & French, S. A. (2016). Park-use behavior and perceptions by race, Hispanic Origin, and immigrant status in Minneapolis, MN: Implications on park strategies for addressing health disparities. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 19(2), 318-327. Web.

Fernandez, M. L. (2021). Lifestyle factors and genetic variants associated to health disparities in the Hispanic population. Nutrients, 13(7), 1-11. Web.

Howell, E. A., Egorova, N. N., Janevic, T., Balbierz, A., Zeitlin, J., & Hebert, P. L. (2017). Severe maternal morbidity among Hispanic women in New York City. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 129(2), 285-294. Web.

Okeya, O. E. (2021). A critical analysis of transcultural nursing. International Journal of Scientific Development and Research, 6(1), 31-4. Web.

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