Gender interactions in modern society are changing, and inequality between men and women is being challenged in almost every area. The main factors contributing to it are women’s discrimination in the workplaces, medicine, education, and public affairs. The variables that are going to be used in work are access to education, employment estimates, job segregation, and figures related to medical care. Tight statistics show that gender gaps and inequality continue, even in the face of stunning social and economic changes, and determined initiatives for female obedience. The topic is worth to investigate because the issue of inequality may lead to various disparities in economic, political, and social spheres. I hope to gain a better understanding of the factors contributing to the sexism in the main social spheres from the culminating research.
Gender inequality survives in the face of modern legal, economic, and political mechanisms that counteract it. That is, there must be a continuous social process that constantly recreates gender inequality. Information from sociology, psychology, and social cognition studies (how individuals perceive the social world) is used to see how gender inequality and hierarchy work and what. An explanation about how it will be rebuilt over and over again has been found. Understanding how everyday gender assumptions can affect ongoing social relationships in all areas will help us better understand why it is so difficult to change gender inequality. Gender equality is not impossible, but it will be a continuous battle of progress and regress. According to the research, laws and institutional practices offer new opportunities, but the struggle for gender equality must be at the level of people’s thinking. People’s prejudice about what women and men can and should achieve new opportunities open through education, economic innovation, and equality.
Access to Education
Women around the world still have less access to education than men. The overall rate of women’s enrollment in higher education is still very low in many countries, so most women are excluded (Olson-Strom and Rao 268). Women with higher education often make up only a small proportion of all women in a country. Gender inequality remains a fundamental barrier to human progress. Girls and women have made great strides since 1990, but gender equality has not yet been achieved (Koseoglu et al. 1). The disadvantages of women and girls are one of the main causes of inequality. The study used a rapid evidence assessment/review design to find and analyze the sources and summarize the data. The final collection of articles includes publications spanning 30 years of research from 1988 to 2018 (Figure 1). Learning styles, educational skills, curriculum design, support systems, professional development, finance, politics, regulation, law, quality, and finance all have educational implications in terms of disciplinary knowledge, opportunities, experience, and graduates. The type of study, curriculum design, resources, and support were the three most notable aspects of the study (Figure 2). The study has important implications for open and distance learning, particularly in terms of curriculum design. As a starting step, it is critical to acknowledge that women face particular challenges and difficulties that influence their educational paths, choices, and outcomes. This recognition necessitates acknowledging and addressing various elements of inequality.
Women’s employment and gender equality issues are considered to be of paramount importance on the women’s agenda, as they affect almost every country in the world. Equalization in the workplace has a beneficial knock-on effect in other areas where gender differences are likely to occur. Gender differences in the workplace from 1999 to 2000 to 2011 to 2012, gender inequality in employment appears to have decreased significantly (Dev 18). Gender differences in employment structure, most forms of work quality, underemployment, real wages per working day, and real wages per employee are diminishing. Despite these advances, there is still great inequality between men and women in the workplace (Dev 18). For instance, according to a study conducted in Canada, women are likely to receive fewer promotions and lower wages in comparison with male workers (Javdani and McGee 189). Women’s participation in organized departments remains significantly lower than men’s. Females have a lower quality of work in disorganized departments than men. Females have a higher rate of underemployment than men. The wage gap between men and women is widening.
Division of labor is one of the factors contributing to gender inequality in the workplace. The underlying idea in most countries is that men are more willing to take on certain jobs than women. These are usually the highest-paid positions. As a result of this prejudice, women’s income is declining. Women also bear the brunt of unpaid work, so they work overtime, even full-time, which is economically overlooked.
The impact of policy and structural change at the macro level are examined in the econometric study on the factors behind the increase in sex segregation in developing countries (Seguino and Braunstein 2). The work has considered the impact of gender segregation on the employment share of income and, by extension, on male workers. In anticipation of the consequences, note that current policies related to structural change and globalization do not provide adequate quality jobs, and as a result, women are often squeezed into lower-quality jobs than men.
Women are less treated than men and have limited access to health care facilities. This is related to other factors that contribute to gender inequality, such as lack of education and employment opportunities, leading to an increasing number of women leading to poverty. They are unlikely to be able to provide quality medical care. Little research has been done on women because they are more susceptible than men, such as autoimmune disorders and chronic pain problems. Many women also face prejudice and rejection from doctors, which increases medical inequality between men and women.
Instead of focusing on gender differences in health outcomes and the negative effects of discrimination and harassment on women, Homan has advocated a structural sexist approach to the study gender inequality and health (Homan 21). This is in line with the current theoretical understanding of gender as a multi-level social system. The method focuses on how the unfair gender allocation of power and resources that characterizes the gender system of society affects the health of its members, not individual stakeholders. Data show that systemic discrimination has serious consequences for both women and men in their 40s and 50s (Homan 22). This is the first study to design and measure structural sexism at multiple levels of the gender system and how it affects the physical health of women and men in the United States.
The results show that increased exposure to structural sexism at both macro and meso levels is associated with more physical health problems in women. This corresponds to the logical assumption given the unfavorable social position. Access to critical resources, products, and services is restricted for women (Homan 22). Women are more likely to be exposed to violence, harassment, or dangerous working conditions, perceived discrimination, low subjective social status, and increased stress.
Additional Factors Contributing to the Lack of Equality
Nearly one billion women are not legally protected from domestic sexual abuse and domestic economic violence, according to a World Bank survey. Both of these have a significant impact on a woman’s ability to succeed and live freely. In addition, in many countries, there are few legal claims for harassment at work, school, or in public. Without protection, these attitudes are dangerous, and women are forced to choose to compromise and limit their ambitions.
Many women around the world have no control over their bodies, especially when they become mothers. Contraception is often difficult to obtain. According to the World Health Organization, more than 200 million women who do not want to become pregnant do not use contraceptives. Lack of opportunity, restricted access, and cultural/religious hostility are some of the reasons for this. Globally, about 40% of pregnancies are unwanted, 50% of which lead to abortion, and the remaining 38% lead to childbirth (World Health Organization). These women often become financially dependent on others and governments and give up their independence.
Women suffer most from the violation of religious freedom. According to the World Economic Forum, gender inequality is exacerbated when radical beliefs invade communities and limit religious freedom. Religious intolerance is also associated with the ability of women to participate in the economy. Women’s participation makes the economy more stable as religious freedom increases. Another factor is the lack of women’s representation in politics. Despite years of improvement, women continue to be chronically underestimated in government and political processes. As a result, issues raised by women in parliament, such as maternity leave, childcare, pensions, equality law, and gender-based violence, are often overlooked.
From the results of the study, it is clear that gender inequality still persists in modern society. It could be seen when analyzing the position of the males and females in regards to different social spheres. According to the findings, there is a gap between the opportunities provided for men and women in economic, political, medical, and educational areas. Thus, the hypothesis that the main factors contributing to the unequality between genders are discrimination of women in workplaces, education, medicine, and public affairs is supported by the findings of the study. Although not as specific as some of the other variables in this list, the general worldview of society has a significant impact on gender inequality. The social assessment of the differences and values between men and women plays a decisive role in all areas of the work-life, legal system, and medical care. Gender beliefs are deeply rooted, and despite the fact that changes in law and structure can make progress, there is often resistance after significant improvements. It is normal for everyone to overlook other causes of gender inequality when there are signs of progress, such as the better representation of women in leadership positions. All the factors mentioned in the work perpetuate gender inequality and delay meaningful change.
Dev, S. Mahendra. “Inequality, employment and public policy.” The Indian Journal of Labour Economics vol. 61, no. 1, 2018, pp. 1-42. Web.
“Family planning/contraception methods”. World Health Organization, 2020. Web.
Homan, Patricia. “Structural sexism and health in the United States: A new perspective on health inequality and the gender system.” American Sociological Review vol. 84, no. 3, 2019, pp. 486-516. Web.
Javdani, Mohsen, and Andrew McGee. “Moving up or falling behind? Gender, promotions, and wages in Canada.” Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society vol. 58, no. 2, 2019, pp. 189-228. Web.
Koseoglu, Suzan, et al. “30 Years of Gender Inequality and Implications on Curriculum Design in Open and Distance Learning.” Journal of Interactive Media in Education vol. 1, no. 5, 2020, pp. 1-11. Web.
Olson-Strom, Solveig, and Nirmala Rao. “Higher education for women in Asia.” Diversity and inclusion in global higher education. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore, 2020, pp. 263-282. Web.
Seguino, Stephanie, and Elissa Braunstein. “The costs of exclusion: Gender job segregation, structural change and the labour share of income.” Development and Change vol. 50, no. 4, 2019, pp. 976-1008. Web.